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Yeast Selected from Nature   Yeast Chart   Bacteria Selected from Nature   Nutrients   Enzymes   Others
YEAST SELECTED FROM NATURE

Lallemand Yeast Products Lallemand offers over 100 oenological yeasts throughout the world. In North America we have selected over 40 of the more successful yeasts to meet your creative needs while working within your growing and winemaking practices.

These following brief descriptions will provide general information on each yeast and what sets it apart from the others under standard winemaking conditions. Also use the Yeast Chart and the Grape and Yeast Cellar pairing guide to help you select the right yeast to fit your grapes, fermentation conditions and stylistic goals.

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Enoferm Assmanshausen (AMH)™: Allows expression of indigenous flora
Originating from the Geisenheim Research Institute, AMH is useful for making Pinot noir and Zinfandel. It is considered a color friendly yeast that enhances spicy (clove, nutmeg) and fruity flavors and aromas. AMH has a long lag phase, a slow to medium fermentation rate and benefits greatly from the use of a well managed nutrient program during rehydration and fermentation. Good fermentation domination is obtained with AMH if the culture is allowed to develop in about 10% of the total must volume for 8 hours before final inoculation.

Enoferm Burgundy (BGY)™: It’s Burgundy
BGY was isolated in the Burgundy region of France and is maintained at UC Davis as UCD-51. It is used in reds, particularly Pinot noir. BGY is not easy to use but can give good results when carefully rehydrated using GO-FERM or a NATSTEP product and inoculated into must with balanced nutrients.

Enoferm CSM™: To reduce herbaceous character in under ripe fruit
CSM was isolated from Bordeaux for Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Merlot. It does not tolerate alcohols above 14% and benefits from high and balanced nutrient additions under good fermentation practices. It favors color and phenolic extraction, is red fruit driven, reduces vegetal aromas and adds complexity along with balanced, round mouthfeel. CSM will promote malolactic fermentation.

Enoferm M1™: For sweet-style aromatic whites and rosés
Enoferm M1 is from the culture collection at Massey University, New Zealand. It is used to produce aromatic rosé and white wines, especially wines with residual sugar. Due to the high production of esters, typical descriptors include “fruit punch,” especially when fermented at lower temperatures and provided with adequate balanced nutrients. The production of esters is limited at temperatures above 20°C. The yeast flocculates and settles to give compact lees.

Enoferm M2™: The all-purpose yeast
Enoferm M2 was isolated in Stellenbosch, South Africa and is selected from the Massey University culture collection. It is a neutral to low ester-producing yeast and needs a high level of balanced nutrients for a strong fermentation finish. In reds and whites it can be distinguished by its expression of citrus and blossom notes, and is valued for accentuating volume in the mouth.

Enoferm Simi White™: Fruity foamer for whites and rosés
Simi White is a popular choice for fruity white and rosé style wines. It is prized for its aroma and flavor contribution to Chardonnay and has been described as contributing creamy fruit. It is highly affected by nutrient composition and juice handling procedures and has a tendency to produce a lot of foam.

Enoferm Syrah™: For classical Syrah aromas
Syrah is a Côte du Rhône isolate used for Syrah, Merlot and Carignane. It is a high glycerol producer and offers good mouthfeel and stable color extraction. It requires high nutrient levels and shows the best sensory results when properly rehydrated in a NATSTEP suspension. Typical aromas include violets, raspberries, cassis, strawberries, black pepper and grilled meat.

Enoferm T306®: For elegant aromatic whites
T306 was isolated from indigenous fermentations of Pinot Noir at Tyrrell’s Vineyards, Pokolbin, in the Hunter Valley NSW Australia. It is used mainly for fruit focused Pinot gris, Chardonnay, Semillon and Chenin blanc for imparting aroma characters of exotic fruit and pineapple. In barrel fermented Chardonnay it contributes elegant white fruit and mouthfeel, particularly with lees contact time.

Enoferm RP15™: Concentrated reds
RP15 was selected from spontaneous Rockpile Syrah fermentations. This new California isolate is used in concentrated reds, particularly Syrah, Zinfandel, Grenache, Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot where a moderate fermentation rate is desired for rich, lush, balanced mouthfeel and full bodied wines. RP15 has a moderate nitrogen demand and will allow good results with varietal flavor and red fruit and mineral aromatic note development when carefully rehydrated using GoFerm Protect (NATSTEP) before inoculation into musts.

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Lalvin 71B®: For nouveau wines
Lalvin 71B was isolated by the INRA (National Agricultural Research Institute) in Narbonne, France. Lalvin 71B is known for making blush and semi-sweet wines with a tropical fruit character. Long-lived aromas are due to its production of relatively stable esters and higher alcohols. Lalvin 71B also softens high acid musts by partially metabolizing malic acid.

Lalvin BA11™: Secure yeast for white wine mouthfeel
BA11 was selected in 1997 near Estação Vitivinicola de Barraida in Portugal. It has excellent fermentation kinetics, even at low temperatures. It promotes clean aromatic characteristics and intensifies mouthfeel and lingering flavors in white wines. In relatively neutral white varieties, BA11 encourages the fresh fruit aromas of orange blossom, pineapple and apricot.

Lalvin BM45™: The Big Movement in winemaking
Lalvin BM45 was isolated in the early 1990s in collaboration with the Consorzio del Vino Brunello de Montalcino and the University of Siena. BM45 is a relatively slow starter and is well suited for long maceration programs. It has high nitrogen requirements and can produce sulfides if nutrient starved. When used in whites, BM45 benefits greatly from rehydration with proper nutrition. During fermentation, BM45 produces high levels of polyphenol-reactive polysaccharides, resulting in wines with great mouthfeel and improved color stability. BM45 is used on red varieties to contribute jam, spice and earthy elements. It is also used to minimize vegetal characteristics. Some winemakers use BM45 on Chardonnay as a blending component to increase mouthfeel.

Lalvin BM4X4®: The attributes of Lalvin BM45 with optimized fermentation capacity
Lalvin BM 4X4 is a blend of Lalvin BM45 and another yeast known for its fermentation reliability. BM45 is known and appreciated around the world for its round mouthfeel and stable color (see above description for BM45). However, BM45 is a slow fermenter and can require substantial nutrients to complete fermentation successfully and without the production of sulfides. While BM45 has a very strong following among winemakers who enjoy its slow fermentation and its suitability for long maceration programs, there are others who desire the attributes of BM45 but with a more timely and secure fermentation. BM 4X4 achieves this goal. During the yeast growth phase, BM 4X4 has the unusual capacity of releasing a significant quantity of polyphenol-reactive polysaccharides into the fermenting must. The quantity and the quality of the polysaccharides released during fermentation facilitate the production of red wines with great mouthfeel and improved color stability, with dependable fermentation kinetics under difficult fermentation conditions. In whites, BM 4X4 releases a high level of esters responsible for fruit aromas. It also brings roundness to the mouthfeel and facilitates malolactic fermentation.

Lalvin BRL97™: For long aging, color stability and structure
BRL97 was selected as a result of a four-year study by the University of Torino from over 600 isolates taken from 31 wineries in the Barolo region. The goal of the selection was to find natural yeast from Nebbiolo that is able to retain both the color and the varietal character of the grape. BRL97 has received good feedback from North American winemakers for its color stabilization and sensory contributions in heavier structured reds such as Zinfandel, Barbera, Merlot and Nebbiolo.

Lalvin Clos™: For ultra-premium red wines
Lalvin Clos® was selected by the University of Rovira I Virgili in Spain from the Priorat region, situated in the province of Tarragona.  Vinification trials show Lalvin Clos has a very good implantation rate under difficult conditions, such as low nitrogen content over a wide range of temperatures. The results of experimental and winery trials with Carignane, Grenache, Syrah, Zinfandel and Tempranillo grapes confirm this yeast’s potential as an excellent tool to enhance aromatic complexity, structure and mouthfeel.

Lalvin CY3079 (Bourgoblanc)® For classic white Burgundy
Lalvin CY3079 was selected by the BIVB with the objective of finding a yeast that would complement typical white Burgundy styles. CY3079 is a steady, average fermenter, especially at cold temperatures (13°C). Its fermentation finish is slow due to an early autolysis resulting in roundness. This yeast greatly benefits from using rehydration nutrients and complex yeast nutrients designed for use during fermentation. When properly fed, CY3079 has good alcohol tolerance (up to 15%) and is a low producer of VA and sulfides. It is recommended for barrel-fermented Chardonnay and sur lie aging. Chardonnays produced with CY3079 have rich, full mouthfeel and are characterized by aromas of fresh butter, almond, honey, white flowers and pineapple.

Lalvin DV10™: Sparkling wine selection for primary and secondary fermentation
Sparkling wine selection for primary and secondary fermentation DV10 is approved for traditional sparkling wine production by the CIVC in Epernay. DV10 has strong fermentation kinetics over a wide temperature range and relatively low nitrogen demands. DV10 is famous for its ability to ferment under stressful conditions of low pH, high total SO2 and low temperature. Low foaming and low VA production characterize it. DV10 is considered a clean fermenter that respects varietal character and avoids bitter sensory contributions of other one-dimensional 'workhorse' yeasts such as Prise de Mousse. It is classified as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus.

Lalvin EC-1118 (Prise de Mousse)™: THE original Prise de Mousse
Lalvin EC-1118 is the original and is good for barrel fermentations. It ferments well at low temperatures and flocculates well with very compact lees. Under low nutrients conditions, Lalvin EC-1118 produces a lot of SO2 (up to 30 ppm) and as a result can inhibit malolactic fermentation. It is classified as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus.

Lalvin ICV-D21®: The ‘terroir’ yeast
Lalvin ICV-D21 was isolated in 1999 from Pic Saint Loup Languedoc “terroir” during a special regional program run by the Institut Coopératif du Vin (ICV)’s Natural Micro-Flora Observatory and Conservatory. Lalvin ICV-D21 was selected for fermenting red wines with stable color, intense fore-mouth, mid-palate tannin structure, and fresh aftertaste. Unlike most wine yeasts, Lalvin ICV-D21 contributes both higher acidity perception and positive polyphenol reactive polysaccharides. Strong interactions of the polysaccharides with the floral and fruity volatile compounds (β-ionone, ethyl hexanoate) contribute to a more stable aromatic profile in the mouth. These attributes avoid the development of cooked jam and burning-alcohol sensations in highly mature and concentrated Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah. During fermentation, Lalvin ICV-D21 produces very few sulfides and it is also noted for its good fermentation performance even under high temperature and low nutrient conditions. It allows for the expression of fruit from the grapes while reducing the potential for herbaceous characters in Cabernet sauvignon. When blended with wines fermented with Lalvin ICV-D254 and Lalvin ICV-D80, Lalvin ICV-D21 brings fresher, sustained intense fruit and lively sensations beginning in the fore-mouth and carrying through to the aftertaste. Lalvin ICV-D21 is also used in very ripe white grapes, barrel-fermented to develop fresh fruit aromas, volume and acidity which compliments wines fermented with Enoferm ICV-D47 in blends. Rosé wines fermented with Lalvin ICV-D21 have enhanced red fruit, fore-mouth volume and balance, making it the perfect blending complement to Rosé wines fermented with Lalvin ICV-GRE.

Lalvin ICV-D47™: For complex whites with citrus and floral notes
Lalvin ICV-D47 is a Côtes du Rhône isolate from Suze-la-Rousse for the production of full-bodied barrel fermented Chardonnay and other white varietals. When left on lees, ripe spicy aromas with tropical and citrus notes are developed. Lalvin ICV-D47 is a high polysaccharide producer known for its accentuated fruit and great volume. On most of the white grape varieties, this yeast elaborates wines with ripe stable fruits or jam-like aromas. Thanks to these aromas, the cuvées fermented with the Lalvin ICV-D47 are a good source of complexity in the blends. Moreover Lalvin ICV-D47 contributes to the wines silkiness and persistence. Excellent results are particularly obtained for the production of top-of-the-range Chardonnay fermented in barrels, especially when blended with Lalvin ICV-D21 fermented chardonnays

Lalvin ICV-D80®: To enhance tannin structure
Lalvin ICV-D80 was isolated by Dominique Delteil of the ICV in 1992 from the Côte Rôtie area of the Rhône Valley for its ability to ferment musts high in sugar and polyphenols. With proper nutrition, aeration and fermentation temperatures below 28°C, Lalvin ICV-D80 will ferment up to 16% alcohol. Lalvin ICV-D80 brings high fore-mouth volume, big mid-palate mouthfeel and intense fine grain tannin to reds. It is one of the best yeast for contributing big tannin volume and is characterized by ripe fruit, smoke and a licorice finish. When blended with wines fermented with Lalvin ICV-D254 or Syrah, wines fermented with Lalvin ICV-D80 bring more tannin intensity to the blend.

Lalvin ICV-D254®: For mouthfeel in Mediterranean-style reds
Lalvin ICV-D254 was selected by the ICV in 1998 from Syrah fermentations in Gallician, south of the Rhône Valley. In red wines, Lalvin ICV-D254 promises high fore-mouth volume, big mid-palate mouthfeel, intense fruit concentration, smooth tannins and a mildly spicy finish. Red wines made with Lalvin ICV-D254 may be blended with Lalvin ICV-D80 or Lalvin ICV-D21 to create more concentrated, full bodied wines. In unripe reds, ferment 25-50% of the lot with Lalvin ICV-D254 and the balance with Lalvin ICV-GRE to help mask vegetative character. As a complement to Lalvin Bourgoblanc CY3079, winemakers in North America use Lalvin ICV-D254 for fermenting Chardonnay with nutty aromas and creamy mouthfeel.

Lalvin ICV-GRE™: For fruit-forward Rhône-style wines
In 1992 the Lalvin ICV-GRE was selected from the Cornas area of the Rhône Valley. In reds, it contributes up front fruit to easy-to-drink Rhône style wines. Lalvin ICV-GRE is used with short skin contact regimes (3 to 5 days) to reduce vegetal and undesirable sulfur components in varieties like Merlot, Cabernet, Grenache and Syrah. In fruit-focused whites like Chenin blanc, Riesling, and Viognier, Lalvin ICV-GRE results in stable fresh fruit characteristics and delivers a big fore-mouth impact. If the fruit maturity is less than optimum, the Lalvin ICV-GRE is excellent for bringing overall balance to red, rosé and white wines. Rosé wines fermented with Lalvin ICV-GRE from more balanced maturity fruit, emphasize red fruit and higher volume and are complemented by blending Rosés fermented with Lalvin ICV-D21.

Lalvin ICV OPALE®: Higher aromatic intensity in rosés and whites
This is the latest natural yeast selection from the Institut Coopératif du Vin (ICV). When compared with other yeasts, the Lalvin ICV OPALE develops more volatile aromatic compounds, resulting in intense and complex fruit aromas in premium white and rosé wines. This yeast also shows good fermentation abilities in the high maturity grapes coming from the Mediterranean and Rhône regions. Wines fermented with ICV OPALE give the initial impression of volume and softness, followed by a round, intense mid-palate and balanced finish.

Lalvin M69™: For aromatic enhancement of neutral whites
M69 was selected to increase the aromatic complexity of neutral white varieties by the University of Valencia, Spain from Airén musts in the Denomination de Origin Mancha. It is very resistant to high concentrations of sugar and it establishes itself quickly during fermentation. Nutrient supplementation is highly recommended in juices below 150ppm YAN. M69 shows a low conversion efficiency of sugar to alcohol, contributing high levels of glycerol but with low acetaldehyde production. This yeast is recommended especially for warm region neutral whites where the enhancement of aromatic complexity and acidity balance is desired.

Lalvin QA23™: Successfully ferments highly clarified must
Lalvin QA23 was selected in Portugal by the University of Tras os Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD) in cooperation with the Viticultural Commission of the Region Vinhos Verdes. It is used for Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, Chenin blanc, Colombard and Semillon for production of fresh, fruity, clean wines. It enhances aromas of terpenic varietals through its beta-glucosidase activity and is an excellent thiol converter making it a complementary yeast for developing varietal Sauvignon blanc passion fruit character. LalvinQA23 has a low nutrient requirement and will ferment juice with low turbidity at low temperatures (10°C). It is classified as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus.

Lalvin R2™: For expression of Sauvignon blanc aromas
R2 was isolated in the Sauternes region of Bordeaux by Brian Croser of South Australia. It has excellent cold temperature properties and will ferment as low as 5°C. Without good nutrition and protection against osmotic shock, it can tend to produce VA. For this reason, suspension in NATSTEP during R2 rehydration and good nutrition during fermentation is recommended. R2 helps produce intense, direct fruit-style whites by liberation of fruity and floral aroma precursors. It is recommended for aromatic white varieties such as Sauvignon blanc, Riesling and Gewürztraminer. It is classified as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus.

Lalvin RA17®: For liberation of Pinot noir varietal aromas
RA17 was selected by the BIVB in the Burgundy region. It is recommended to enhance varietal characters and obtain fresh, aromatic and supple red wines. To avoid the formation of sulfides it requires high nutrient levels and will benefit greatly from nutrition during rehydration. When properly fed, RA17 will develop cherry and fruit aromas in varieties like Pinot noir and Gamay. Wines made from RA17 can be blended with wines fermented with Lalvin Bourgorouge RC212, BRL97 or AMH to give a more balanced, complex and fuller structure.

Lalvin Bourgorouge RC212®: For Pinot noir with color and structure
Lalvin Bourgorouge RC212 was selected from fermentations in Burgundy by the BIVB to extract and protect the polyphenols of Pinot noir. Due to the limited adsorption of polyphenols on Lalvin Bourgorouge RC212 yeast cell walls, there is limited color loss and structure is protected during aging. It requires high nutrient additions to avoid the potential development of sulfides and demonstrates best results when rehydrated with the right nutrient and protectant. Lalvin Bourgorouge RC212 consistently produces Pinot noir with good structure, ripe cherry, bright fruit and spicy characteristics. Wines made with Lalvin Bourgorouge RC212 can be blended with wines made with RA17 to achieve more complexity and finesse.

Lalvin Rhône 2056®: For structure, color and spiciness
Lalvin Rhone 2056 was selected by the ITV for its ability to maintain varietal fruit aromas and flavors of Côtes du Rhône varieties. It demonstrates good alcohol tolerance as well as low SO2 and VA production over a wide temperature range. Rhone 2056 is a quick to moderate rate fermenter with a relatively high nutrient requirement.Rhone 2056 benefits greatly from good nutrition practices, maintains good color stability and is excellent for forward fruit style reds.

Lalvin Rhone 2226™: Excellent alcohol tolerance
Lalvin Rhone2226 is a vineyard isolate from Côtes du Rhône. It is very alcohol tolerant and is highly recommended for high sugar reds and late harvest wines. In red varietals, high color and good structure as well as black cherry, berry and ‘cherry cola’ aromas characterize Lalvin Rhone 2226.

Lalvin Rhône 4600®: Aromatic and elegant whites and rosés
Rhône 4600 was selected by the Inter-Rhône’s technical department after a three-year study of yeasts well suited for fermenting fruit forward, elegant white and rosé wines. High sugar and low nitrogen musts when fermented cool (13.5°C) with the Rhône 4600, have enhanced apricot and tropical fruit due to strong fatty acid ethyl ester production. Higher roundness with diminished bitterness also make the Rhône 4600 a good choice for Rhône white varietals and chardonnay. Although the Rhône 4600 does not enhance the varietal character of Sauvignon blanc or Semillon, this yeast does bring fatness and balance along with light aromatic ester notes as a good blending component.

Lalvin R-HST®: For Riesling and other aromatic whites
R-HST was selected for its exceptional oenological properties in Riesling from trials conducted from 1991 to 1996 in the Heiligenstein region of Austria. R-HST has a short lag phase and generation time, even at cold temperatures. These features allow it to dominate and persist over spoilage yeast such as Kloeckera apiculata. R-HST retains fresh varietal character and emphasizes floral (rose) and mineral characteristics while contributing body and mouthfeel for an overall complexity and elegance. R-HST also produces crisp, premium white and Pinot noir wines which develop well over time.

Lalvin T73™: Security for high alcohol reds
T73 was isolated from the Valencia area in Spain and was selected for its ability to enhance the natural aromas and flavors of red wines produced in hot climates. Due to its ability to produce high quantities of glycerol, wines made from T73 have good mouthfeel. Hot climate reds that have problems ”opening up” are enhanced by the well-balanced production of esters and higher alcohols. T73 has an extremely low nitrogen demand and quickly dominates the must’s indigenous microflora. It also exhibits good resistance to vineyard antifungal treatments. T73 is classified as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus.

Lalvin V1116 (K1)™: The secure choice for light, fresh, crisp whites
Lalvin V1116 (K1) was isolated in 1972 by Pierre Barre of the INRA Montpellier. V1116 (K1) tends to express the freshness of white grape varieties. Natural fresh fruit aromas are retained for longer, compared to wines fermented with standard yeast (such as Prise de Mousse). When fermented at low temperatures (below 16°C) and with the right addition of nutrients V1116 (K1) is one of the more flowery ester producers (isoamyl acetate, hexyl acetate and phenyl ethyl acetate). These esters bring fresh floral aromas to neutral varieties or high-yield grapes. Among the high ester producers, V1116 (K1) is the most resistant to difficult fermentation conditions, such as low turbidity, low temperature and low fatty acid content. V1116 (K1) is recommended for the fermentation of icewines. It can also be used for rosé or basic red wines.

Lalvin W15™: For clean, low-temperature ferments
W15 was isolated in 1991 from a high-quality Müller Thurgau must at the Viticulture Research Station in Wädenswil, Switzerland. W15 was developed to ferment dry white and red wines at moderate speeds, where bright fruit and good structure are desired due to the production of higher levels of glycerol and succinic acid. Very little heat is generated by W15 during fermentation, reducing the potential for formation of sulfide aromas and good osmotic tolerance has been noted for late harvest fermentations and icewine.

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Uvaferm 43™: The tool to restart stuck fermentations
Uvaferm 43 was selected for its exceptional ability to restart stuck fermentations. Uvaferm 43 was chosen from among 33 different isolates that were tested against each other and also the traditional yeast typically used to restart stuck fermentations. The stuck fermentations used in the selection process were from wines with high alcohols (14.3% with 21 g/L RS) and high free SO2 (35 mg/L). Although it was selected for its ability as a ‘fix-it’ yeast, Uvaferm 43 also gives good sensory results when used in high sugar musts. It is classified as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus.

Uvaferm BDX™: The perfect fermenter
A French isolate used extensively in California and Australia since the late 1980's; Uvaferm BDX has perfect fermentation kinetics and does not generate a lot of heat during fermentation. It is highly recommended for the production of quality red wines, especially Merlot and Cabernet sauvignon, with minimum color loss and enhanced flavor and aroma.

Uvaferm GHM™: For harmonious whites
Uvaferm GHM was isolated in the Rheingau region of Germany and selected from over 800 natural yeast isolates by a team led by Dr. Manfred Grossmann, professor at the Geisenheim Research Center. Numerous fermentation trials with GHM in Riesling and other aromatic white varietals from cooler regions resulted in consistently harmonious and well-balanced wines. It has the ability to enhance floral aromas, while avoiding strong ester production, even at low fermentation temperatures. It brings harmony to the bouquet and delicate fruit aromas, as well as an acidity that remains extremely refined. GHM is also particularly well adapted for white wines destined for aging using extended lees contact.

Uvaferm SVG™: For classical Sauvignon blanc character
The ITV, in collaboration with Lallemand, selected Uvaferm SVG from the Loire region specifically for the enhancement of typical Sauvignon blanc varietal character, diminished acidity and good fermentation kinetics. SVG will metabolize roughly 25% of the malic acid, helping to naturally lower acidity. In tastings of Sancerre and Pouilly Fumé wines fermented with different yeasts, those fermented with SVG scored higher than the wines fermented with other yeasts commonly used for Sauvignon blanc. These Sauvignon blanc wines were described as having more intensity and a better balance of mineral, citrus and spicy notes. SVG is also recommended for aromatic white varieties, such as Riesling or Pinot gris.

Uvaferm VRB®: Balanced mouthfeel high alcohol reds
VRB was chosen by CIDA in the Rioja region of Spain to enhance varietal characteristics and ester perception. Red wines such as Tempranillo, Barbera, and Sangiovese, when fermented with VRB, tend to have good color intensity and stability with increased phenolic structure. Its flavor attributes are often described as ripe fruit, jam, hazelnut, and dried plums on the finish. With properly integrated nutrition, VRB has a high alcohol tolerance (up to 17%), short lag phase, steady fermentation rate, and low VA production. VRB produces low amounts of short-chained fatty acids that help reduce vegetative character.

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Vitilevure 3.001™: For Pinot noir
Vitilevure 3.001 was isolated, studied and selected from the prestigious Côte de Nuits terroir in Burgundy during a three year research project by Laboratory Burgundia Oenologie in Beaune, France. The goal of this selection program was to find dominant natural yeast that would elaborate intense, complex and balanced Pinot noir varietal character. Vitilevure 3.001 yeast is recommended for cold soak as it tolerates SO2 and low temperature.

Vitilevure 58W3™: For Alsatian style aromatic whites
58W3 was isolated, studied and selected during a five-year research project by the INRA in Colmar (Alsace), France in collaboration with Gresser Oenology. The goal of this selection program was to find dominant natural yeast that would enhance spicy, floral and fruit descriptors in aromatic white varietals such as Gewürztraminer and Pinot gris. Unique to the 58W3 is its ability to contribute an overall well-balanced mouthfeel and minimize the development of bitter compounds that are associated with more basic ‘work horse’ yeasts. Due to its fermentation kinetics, especially in high potential alcohol juices, a balanced nutrient strategy and good fermentation practices should be followed.

Vitilevure Elixir™: For aromatic expression in whites and rosés
Vitilevure Elixir is a natural cross hybrid from the Institute for Wine Biotechnology at the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa, selected for strong fermentation characteristics with revelation and expression of terpenes, thiols and floral, fruity aromas from fatty acid esters for lasting elegance and finesse. Recommended for Sauvignon blanc, Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Riesling, Muscat, Chenin blanc, Ugni Blanc and Rosés especially from Cabernet, Grenache and Syrah.

Vitilevure M83™: Rosé de Provence with mouthfeel and balance
M83 is the outcome of a yeast selection program in the Bandol appellation of Provence region of France. It produces round and balanced rosés with enhanced fruit aromas and more stable color due to its polyphenol reactive polysaccharides. M83 is a low SO2 and low volatile acidity production yeast with very good fermentation kinetics up to 15.5% alcohol. Tastings by Bandol region professionals at the Center de Recherche et d’Experimentation sur le Vin Rosé, confirmed that the M83 was well adapted to the difficult fermentation conditions encountered in Provence.

Vitilevure MT™: For long-aging Bordeaux varieties
MT was selected in Saint Emilion by the ITV Bordeaux in collaboration with the INRA Montpellier to help bring out typical strawberry jam and caramel aromatics of Merlot. The color intensity and tannic structure of wines elaborated with MT are higher when compared with standard yeasts used for Bordeaux red varietals. This yeast is particularly recommended for grapes with high maturity and long aging potential. MT’s fermentation kinetics is steady and its alcohol tolerance is high. However, it will benefit from a balanced nutrient strategy especially in low available nitrogen musts with high potential alcohol.

Vitilevure QUARTZ™: For sparkling wines, secure fermentation & aromatic finesse
For sparkling wines, secure fermentation & aromatic finesse Vitilevure QUARTZ was isolated from the Fleury domain at Courteron in France, where biodynamics have been practiced since the 1980s. With an alcohol tolerance of up to 17% as well as low temperature and pH tolerance, QUARTZ is suited to difficult conditions. Aside from being a good choice for sparkling wines, it is a great selection for tank-fermented Sauvignon blanc or whites fermented in neutral barrels. It is also recommended for restarting stuck fermentations. QUARTZ is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus.

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Cross Evolution: Natural cross hybrid for aromatic whites and rosés
Cross Evolution is a strong fermenting yeast, from the Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Stellenbosch University in South Africa, that is ideal for aromatic white and Rosé wines with high alcohol potential, low fermentation temperatures and low nitrogen levels. Cross Evolution is not a genetically modified yeast but a result of a unique breeding program resulting in hybrids. Cross Evolution also contributes an increased mouthfeel component resulting in aromatic wines with a balanced mouthfeel. Cross EVOLUTION is recommended for Chardonnay, Chenin blanc, Gewürztraminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Riesling, Roussanne, Sauvignon blanc and Voignier.

Level 2 TD™: For aromatic intensity, complexity and mouthfeel
Level 2 TD is an innovative kit of two compatible yeasts selected in a long term global study. The kit contains Torulaspora delbrueckii 291 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 734 used in sequential inoculation in order to promote aromatic intensity, complexity and mouthfeel especially in white wines. Lower volatile acidity production in ice wine and other high sugar juices is a notable attribute.

Levuline BRG™: For Burgundy varietals
Levuline BRG was isolated in the Burgundy terroir by Professor Feuillat's team from the UIVV in Dijon (reference UP30Y5). This yeast was selected for its positive fermentation qualities and its ability to develp the aromatic and organoleptic expression for white and red Burgundy varietals.

Levuline CHP™:Security of fermentation and aromatic finesse
Levuline CHP was isolated in the terroirs near Epernay, France and selected by the Interprofessionnal Committee of Champagne (reference CIVC 8130). It has strong fermentation characteristics and ability to produce enhanced floral and direct fruit white wines under low temperature (15-18°C) and highly clarified juice (<80 NTU).

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