58W3: For Alsatian style aromatic whites
58W3 was isolated, studied and selected during a five-year research project by the INRA in Colmar, France in collaboration with Martin Vialatte and Gresser Oenology. The goal of this selection program was to find a dominant natural yeast that would enhance spicy, floral and fruit descriptors in aromatic white varietals such as Gewürztraminer and Pinot Gris. Unique to the 58W3 is its ability to contribute an overall well-balanced mouthfeel and minimize the development of bitter compounds that are associated with more basic "work horse" type yeast strains. Due to its fermentation kinetics, especially in high potential alcohol juices, a balanced nutrient strategy is recommended such as GO-FERM and Fermaid K along with aeration between 1/3 and 1/2 sugar depletion.
Lalvin 71B: For nouveau wines
71B was isolated by the INRA (National Agricultural Research Institute) in Narbonne, France. 71B is known for making blush and semi-sweet wines with a 'fruit salad' character. Long-lived aromas are due to its production of esters and higher alcohols. 71B also softens high acid musts by partially metabolizing malic acid.
BA11: Secure strain for white wine mouthfeel
BA11 was selected in 1997 near Estação Vitivinicola de Barraida in Portugal. It has excellent fermentation kinetics, even at low temperatures. It promotes clean aromatic characteristics and intensifies mouthfeel and lingering flavors in white wines. In relatively neutral white varieties, BA11 encourages the fresh fruit aromas of orange blossom, pineapple and apricot.
Cross Evolution: Natural cross hybrid for aromatic whites and rosés
Cross Evolution is a strong fermenting yeast, from the Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Stellenbosch University in South Africa, that is ideal for aromatic white and Rosé wines with high alcohol potential, low fermentation temperatures and low nitrogen levels. Cross Evolution is not a genetically modified yeast but a result of a unique breeding program resulting in hybrids. Cross Evolution also contributes an increased mouthfeel component resulting in aromatic wines with a balanced mouthfeel. Cross EVOLUTION is recommended for Chardonnay, Chenin blanc, Gewürztraminer, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Roussanne, Sauvignon blanc and Voignier.
Lalvin ICV-D21: The ‘terroir’ yeast
Lalvin ICV-D21 was isolated in 1999 from Pic Saint Loup Languedoc “terroir” during a special regional program run by the Institut Coopératif du Vin (ICV)’s Natural Micro-Flora Observatory and Conservatory. Lalvin ICV-D21 was selected for fermenting red wines with stable color, intense fore-mouth, mid-palate tannin structure, and fresh aftertaste. Unlike most wine yeasts, Lalvin ICV-D21 contributes both higher acidity and positive polyphenol reactive polysaccharides. Strong interactions of the polysaccharides with the floral and fruity volatile compounds (β-ionone, ethyl hexanoate) contribute to a more stable aromatic profile in the mouth. These attributes avoid the development of cooked jam and burning-alcohol sensations in highly mature and concentrated Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah. During fermentation, Lalvin ICV-D21 produces very few sulfides and it is also noted for its good fermentation performance even under high temperature and low nutrient conditions. It allows for the expression of fruit from the grapes while reducing the potential for herbaceous characters in Cabernet Sauvignon. When blended with wines fermented with Lalvin ICV-D254 and Lalvin ICV¬D80, Lalvin ICV-D21 brings fresher, sustained intense fruit and lively sensations beginning in the fore-mouth and carrying through to the aftertaste. Lalvin ICV-D21 is also used in very ripe white grapes, barrel-fermented to develop fresh fruit aromas, volume and acidity which compliments wines fermented with Enoferm ICV-D47 in blends. Rosé wines fermented with Lalvin ICV-D21 have enhanced red fruit, fore-mouth volume and balance, making it the perfect blending complement to Rosé wines fermented with Lalvin ICV-GRE.
Enoferm ICV-D47: For complex whites with citrus and floral notes
ICV-D47 is a Côtes du Rhône isolate for the production of full-bodied barrel fermented Chardonnay and other white varietals. Although ICV-D47 has an optimum temperature range of 18° to 28°C, the best results are obtained at around 20°C. When left on lees, ripe spicy aromas with tropical and citrus notes are developed. ICV-D47 is a high polysaccharide producer known for its accentuated fruit and great volume.
DV10: The best Champagne isolate
DV10 was selected by the SOEC in the Champagne region and is approved by the CIVC in Epernay. DV10 has strong fermentation kinetics over a wide temperature range and relatively low nitrogen demands. DV10 is famous for its ability to ferment under stressful conditions of low pH, high total SO2 and low temperature. Low foaming and low VA production characterize it. DV10 is considered a clean fermenter that respects varietal character and avoids bitter sensory contributions of other one-dimensional 'workhorse' strains such as Prise de Mousse. It is classified as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus.
Lalvin ICV-GRE: For easy-to-drink Rhône style wines
In 1992 Dominique Delteil was also responsible for the selection of ICV-GRE from the Cornas area of the Rhône Valley. This strain is suitable for red, rosé and white wines. In reds, it contributes up front fruit to easy-to-drink Rhône style wines. ICV-GRE is used with short skin contact regimes (3 to 5 days) to reduce vegetal and undesirable sulfur components in varieties like Merlot, Cabernet, Grenache and Syrah. In fruit focused whites like Chenin blanc, Riesling, and Viognier, ICV-GRE results in stable fresh fruit characteristics and delivers a big fore-mouth impact.
Enoferm QA23: Successfully ferments highly clarified must
QA23 was selected in Portugal by the University of Tras os Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD) in cooperation with the Viticultural Commission of the Region Vinhos Verdes. It is used for Sauvignon blanc, Chenin blanc, Colombard and Semillon for production of fresh, fruity, clean wines. It enhances aromas of terpenic varietals through beta-glucosidase activity. QA23 has a low nutrient requirement and will ferment juice of low solids content at low temperatures (10°C). It is classified as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus.
R2: For expression of Sauvignon blanc aromas
R2 was isolated in the Sauternes region of Bordeaux by Brian Croser of South Australia. It has excellent cold temperature properties and will ferment as low as 5°C. If it does not get proper nutrients it can tend to produce VA. For this reason, rehydration with GO-FERM and the addition of Fermaid K is recommended. R2 helps produce intense direct fruit style whites by liberation of fruity and floral aroma precursors. It is recommended for aromatic white varieties such as Sauvignon blanc, Riesling and Gewürztraminer. It is classified as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus.
SVG: For classical Sauvignon blanc character
The ITV in collaboration with Lallemand selected SVG from the Loire specifically for the enhancement of typical Sauvignon blanc varietal character, diminished acidity, and good fermentation kinetics. SVG will metabolize roughly 25% of the malic acid helping to naturally lower acidity. In tastings of Sancerre and Pouilly Fume wines fermented with different yeasts, the wines fermented with SVG scored higher than those fermented with other yeasts commonly used for Sauvignon blanc. These Sauvignon blanc wines were described as having more intensity and a better balance of mineral, citrus and spicy notes. Aside from Sauvignon blanc, SVG is also recommended for aromatic white varieties such as Riesling or Pinot gris.
W15: A fructophile for clean, low temperature ferments
W15 was isolated in 1991 from a high quality Müller Thurgau must originating in the vineyards at the Viticulture Research Station in Wädenswil, Switzerland. W15 was developed to ferment dry whites at moderate speeds where bright fruit and heavy mouthfeel are desired. W15 is also used to ferment light red varieties. W15 produces higher levels of glycerol and succinic acid especially at higher fermentation temperatures (25°C).
W46: A cold fermenter from Switzerland
Dr. Gafner's group at the Viticulture Research Station in Wädenswil, Switzerland selected W46 from a Pinot noir fermentation in the Zurich region. W46 fermentations take off quickly and rapidly dominate indigenous flora. W46 is similar to W27 but has a more rapid fermentation rate. Low temperature tolerance and clean fruit aromas characterize W46. In Pinot noir there is little color loss and in Riesling and Sylvaner it enhances flavor and aroma profiles.
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