Rhône 4600: Aromatic and elegant whites and rosés
Rhône 4600 was selected by the Inter-Rhône’s technical department after a three-year study of yeasts well suited for fermenting fruit forward, elegant white and rosé wines. High sugar and low nitrogen musts when fermented cool (13.5°C) with the Rhône 4600, have enhanced apricot and tropical fruit due to strong fatty acid ethyl ester production. Higher roundness with diminished bitterness also make the Rhône 4600 a good choice for Rhône white varietals and chardonnay. Although the Rhône 4600 does not enhance the varietal character of Sauvignon blanc or Semillon, this yeast does bring fatness and balance along with light aromatic ester notes as a good blending component.
Lalvin 71B: For nouveau wines
71B was isolated by the INRA (National Agricultural Research Institute) in Narbonne, France. 71B is known for making blush and semi-sweet wines with a 'fruit salad' character. Long-lived aromas are due to its production of esters and higher alcohols. 71B also softens high acid musts by partially metabolizing malic acid.
Enoferm BDX: The perfect fermenter
A French isolate used extensively in California and Australia since the late 1980's. It has perfect fermentation kinetics and does not generate a lot of heat during fermentation. It is highly recommended for the production of quality red wines, especially Merlot and Cabernet sauvignon, with minimum color loss and enhanced flavor and aroma.
Lalvin BM45: The Big Movement in winemaking
BM45 was isolated in the early 1990's in collaboration with the Consorzio del Vino Brunello de Montalcino and the University of Siena. BM45 is a relatively slow starter and is well suited for long maceration programs. It has high nitrogen requirements and can produce H2S if nutrient starved. Especially when used in whites, BM45 benefits greatly when rehydrated with GO-FERM. BM45 produces high levels of polysaccharides resulting in wines with great mouthfeel and improved color stability. BM45 is used on red varieties to contribute jam, spice and earthy elements. It also is used to minimize vegetal characteristics. Some winemakers use BM45 on Chardonnay as a blending component to increase mouthfeel.
BM4X4: The attributes of Lalvin BM45 with optimized fermentation capacity
BM4X4 is a blend of Lalvin BM45 and another yeast known for its fermentation reliability. Lalvin BM45 is known and appreciated around the world for its round mouthfeel and stable color (see above description for Lalvin BM45). Lalvin BM45, however, is a slow fermenter and can require substantial nutrients to complete fermentation successfully and without the production of H2S. While Lalvin BM45 has a very strong following from winemakers who enjoy its slow fermentation and its suitability for long maceration programs, there are others who desire the attributes of Lalvin BM45 but with a timelier and secure fermentation. BM4X4 achieves this goal.
During the yeast growth phase, BM4x4 has the unusual capacity of releasing a significant quantity of polyphenol reactive polysaccharides into the fermenting must. The quantity and the quality of the polysaccharides released during fermentation, facilitate the production of red wines with great mouthfeel and improved color stability with dependable fermentation kinetics under difficult fermentation conditions. BM4x4 also brings roundness and to white wines and facilitates malolactic fermentation.
BRL97: For long aging, color stability and structure
BRL97 was selected as a result of a four-year study by the University of Torino from over 600 isolates taken from 31 wineries in the Barolo region. The goal of the selection was to find a natural yeast from Nebbiolo that is able to retain both the color and the varietal character of the grape. BRL97 has received good feedback from North American winemakers for its color stabilization and sensory contributions in heavier structured reds such as Zinfandel, Barbera, Merlot and Nebbiolo.
CSM: To reduce herbaceous character in under ripe fruit
CSM was isolated from Bordeaux for Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Merlot. Its optimum fermentation range is between 15° to 32°C and it does not handle alcohols above 14%. CSM requires high levels of nutrients (GO-FERM and Fermaid K). It favors color and phenolic extraction, is red fruit driven, reduces vegetal aromas and adds complexity along with balanced, round mouthfeel. CSM will promote malolactic fermentation.
Lalvin ICV-D254: For mouthfeel in Mediterranean style reds
ICV-D254 was selected by the ICV from Syrah fermentations in the Rhône Valley. When the fermentation is aerated and the temperature is maintained below 28°C, ICV-D254 has an alcohol tolerance of up to 16%. Especially when used for white fermentations, ICV-D254 benefits from rehydration with GO-FERM. In red wines, ICV-D254 promises high fore-mouth volume, big mid-palate mouthfeel and intense fruit concentration. Smooth tannins and a mildly spicy finish characterize it. Red wines made with ICV-D254 may be blended with ICV-D80 to create more concentrated, fuller bodied wines. As a complement to CY3079, winemakers in North American use ICV-D254 for fermenting Chardonnay with nutty aromas and creamy mouthfeel.
Lalvin ICV-D80: To enhance tannin structure
ICV-D80 was isolated by Dominique Delteil of the ICV in 1992 from the Côte Rôtie area of the Rhône Valley for its ability to ferment musts high in sugar and polyphenols. With proper nutrition (GO-FERM and Fermaid K), aeration and fermentation temperatures below 28°C, ICV-D80 will ferment up to 16% alcohol. ICV-D80 brings high fore-mouth volume, big mid-palate mouthfeel and intense fine grain tannin to reds. It is one of the best strains for contributing big tannin volume and is characterized by ripe fruit, smoke and a licorice finish. When blended with wines fermented with ICV-D254 or Syrah, wines fermented with ICV-D80 bring more tannin intensity to the blend.
Lalvin ICV-GRE: For easy-to-drink Rhône style wines
In 1992 Dominique Delteil was also responsible for the selection of ICV-GRE from the Cornas area of the Rhône Valley. This strain is suitable for red, rosé and white wines. In reds, it contributes up front fruit to easy-to-drink Rhône style wines. ICV-GRE is used with short skin contact regimes (3 to 5 days) to reduce vegetal and undesirable sulfur components in varieties like Merlot, Cabernet, Grenache and Syrah. In fruit focused whites like Chenin blanc, Riesling, and Viognier, ICV-GRE results in stable fresh fruit characteristics and delivers a big fore-mouth impact.
Lalvin ICV-D21: The ‘terroir’ yeast
Lalvin ICV-D21 was isolated in 1999 from Pic Saint Loup Languedoc “terroir” during a special regional program run by the Institut Coopératif du Vin (ICV)’s Natural Micro-Flora Observatory and Conservatory. Lalvin ICV-D21 was selected for fermenting red wines with stable color, intense fore-mouth, mid-palate tannin structure, and fresh aftertaste. Unlike most wine yeasts, Lalvin ICV-D21 contributes both higher acidity and positive polyphenol reactive polysaccharides. Strong interactions of the polysaccharides with the floral and fruity volatile compounds (β-ionone, ethyl hexanoate) contribute to a more stable aromatic profile in the mouth. These attributes avoid the development of cooked jam and burning-alcohol sensations in highly mature and concentrated Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah. During fermentation, Lalvin ICV-D21 produces very few sulfides and it is also noted for its good fermentation performance even under high temperature and low nutrient conditions. It allows for the expression of fruit from the grapes while reducing the potential for herbaceous characters in Cabernet Sauvignon. When blended with wines fermented with Lalvin ICV-D254 and Lalvin ICV¬D80, Lalvin ICV-D21 brings fresher, sustained intense fruit and lively sensations beginning in the fore-mouth and carrying through to the aftertaste. Lalvin ICV-D21 is also used in very ripe white grapes, barrel-fermented to develop fresh fruit aromas, volume and acidity which compliments wines fermented with Enoferm ICV-D47 in blends. Rosé wines fermented with Lalvin ICV-D21 have enhanced red fruit, fore-mouth volume and balance, making it the perfect blending complement to Rosé wines fermented with Lalvin ICV-GRE.
M2: For easy to manage red fermentations
M2 was isolated in Stellenbosch, South Africa and is from Massey University culture collection. It is a neutral to low ester-producing yeast and needs a high level of balanced nutrients (GO-FERM) for a strong fermentation finish. In reds and whites it can be distinguished by its expression of citrus and blossom notes.
M83: Rosé de Provence with mouthfeel and balance
M83 is the outcome of a yeast selection program by Martin Vialatte Oenology and the Laboratoire Aubanelle in the Bandol appellation of Provence region. It produces round and balanced rosés with enhanced fruit aromas and more stable color due to its polyphenol reactive polysaccharides. M83 is a low SO2 and low volatile acidity production yeast with very good fermentation kinetics up to 15.5% alcohol. Tastings by Bandol region professionals at the Center de Recherche et d’Experimentation sur le Vin Rosé, confirmed that the M83 was well adapted to the difficult fermentation conditions encountered in Provence.
MT: For long aging Bordeaux varieties
MT was selected in Saint Emilion by the ITV Bordeaux and Martin Vialatte Oenologie in collaboration with the INRA Montpellier to help bring out typical strawberry jam and caramel aromatics of Merlot. The color intensity and tannic structure of wines elaborated with the MT are higher when compared with standard yeasts used for Bordeaux red varietals. MT's fermentation kinetics are steady and its alcohol tolerance is high, however, it will benefit from a balanced nutrient strategy especially in low available nitrogen musts with high potential alcohol.
Lalvin Bourgorouge RC212: For Pinot noir with color and structure
RC212 was selected from fermentations in Burgundy by the BIVB. It requires high nutrient additions to avoid the potential development of H2S and demonstrates best results when rehydrated with GO-FERM. RC212 consistently produces Pinot noirs with good structure, ripe berry, bright fruit and spicy characteristics. Wines made with RC212 can be blended with wines made with RA17 to achieve more complexity and finesse.
RP15: Concentrated reds
RP15 was selected in collaboration with winemaker Jeff Cohn from spontaneous Rockpile Syrah fermentations. This new California isolate is used in concentrated reds, particularly Syrah, Zinfandel, Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot where a moderate fermentation rate is desired for rich, lush, balanced mouthfeel and full bodied wines. RP15 has a moderate nitrogen demand and will allow good results with varietal flavor and red fruit and mineral aromatic note development when carefully rehydrated using NATSTEP before inoculation into musts.
T73: Security for high alcohol reds
T73 was isolated from the Valencia area in Spain and was selected for its ability to enhance the natural aromas and flavors of red wines produced in hot climates. Due to its ability to produce high quantities of glycerol, wines made from T73 have good mouthfeel. Hot climate reds that have problems 'opening up' are enhanced by the well-balanced production of esters and higher alcohols. T73 is classified as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus.
VRB: Balanced mouthfeel high alcohol reds
VRB was chosen by CIDA in the Rioja region of Spain. It enhances varietal characteristics and ester perception. Red wines such as Tempranillo, Barbera, and Sangiovese, when fermented with VRB, tend to have good color intensity and stability with increased phenolic structure. Its flavor attributes are often described as ripe fruit, jam, hazelnut, and dried plums on the finish. This strain has a high alcohol tolerance (up to 17%) with properly integrated nutrition, short lag phase, steady fermentation rate with low VA production. VRB can soften high acid musts by partially metabolizing malic acid.
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